Dr. Christine Sauer MD ND

What are Omega 3 Fatty Acids? In this article we talk about the chemistry of omega-3 fatty acids, where and how to get them, how much you need, benefits and possible side effects, and whether or not they help with brain and mental health issues, especially depression.

What are omega-3 fatty acids?

tty acids omega 3 fish oil

An omega−3 fatty acid is a fatty acid with multiple double bonds, where the first double bond is between the third and fourth carbon atoms from the end of the carbon atom chain. "Short chain" omega−3 fatty acids have a chain of 18 carbon atoms or less, while "long chain" omega−3 fatty acids have a chain of 20 or more. Omega−3 fatty acids occur naturally in two forms, triglycerides and phospholipids. In the triglycerides, they, together with other fatty acids, are bonded to glycerol; three fatty acids are attached to glycerol. Phospholipid omega−3 is composed of two fatty acids attached to a phosphate group via glycerol. (1)

omega 3 fatty acids

( Image source: Wikipedia)

There are three main types of omega-3 fatty acids:

  • alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
  • eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
  • docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

Both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are important structural components of cell membranes, serve as precursors to bioactive lipid mediators, and provide a source of energy. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in particular exert anti-inflammatory effects; it is recommended to increase their presence in the diet , since our usual diet high in vegetable oils and fast foods contains too much omega 6-fatty acids which are pro-inflammatory, if too much. (2)

I am often asked: "Is fish oil an omega 3 fatty acid?" The answer and the difference between omega 3 and fish-oil is: Fish oil is a complex natural substance that is high in omega-3 fatty acids. The terms fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids are often used synonymously.

Omega-3 fatty acids are not just contained in fish, but are part of many natural foods.(see below)

What does the human body do with omega-3 fatty acids?

Omega-3 fatty acids are vital to proper cell functioning and play an important role in various bodily systems.

They are an integral part of cell membranes throughout the body and affect the function of the cell receptors in these membranes.

They provide the starting point for making hormones that regulate blood clotting, contraction and relaxation of artery walls, and inflammation. They also bind to receptors in cells that regulate genetic function.

Likely due to these effects, omega-3 fats have been shown to help prevent heart disease and stroke, protects our brain, may help control lupus, eczema, and rheumatoid arthritis, and may play protective roles in cancer and other conditions.

DHA and EPA are the forms of omega-3 that are used in our cell membranes. ALA is usually broken down to generate energy, and conversion into EPA and DHA is very limited, and gets lower as we age.

Where are omega-3 fatty acids found?

A good article about where Omega-3's come from can be found HERE.

There are three main types of omega-3 fatty acids:

  • alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
  • eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
  • docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

While ALA is present in oily seeds like flax and chia, DHA and EPA are in fish, krill, and algae. The body can convert ALA to EPA and DHA, but the conversion rate is less than 15%, probably even <5%. Therefore, people may need to consume more of these to get enough omega-3s.

But really, contrary to popular opinion, Omega 3's do not originate in seafood, fish or animals at all.

Where do Omega-3-fatty acids come from?

In my research about who originally makes the omega-3 fats that are essential for us human, I was surprised to find that they do not originate in fish or even in oil seeds like flaxseed or chia. In fact, marine algae and phytoplankton are primary producers of omega−3 fatty acids.

tty acids omega 3 fish oil algae oil phtoplankton ocean environment vegetarian vegan sustainability

It seems, that the increasing climate change threatens human health not just by the temperature changes, heat waves, but also by reducing omega-3-production by marine phytoplankton.

DHA and EPA accumulate in fish that eat these algae. Farmed or "ranched" salmon actually gets food enriched with omega-3's to support the manufacturers health claims!

Common sources of plant oils containing ALA include walnuts, edible seeds, and flaxseeds, while sources of EPA and DHA include fish and fish oils, as well as algae oil.

How to get omega 3 fatty acids

We can get omega 3 fatty acids from plant foods, from animal foods or from nutritional supplements.

tty acids omega 3 fish oil

Plant sources only contain ALA, that has to be converted in our body to EPA and DHA, which are the main forms of omega 3 that are important for brain health, mental health and also general health and combatting inflammation. The problem with AHA os that, although the body can convert ALA to EPA and DHA, the conversion rate is less than 5% and decreases with age. Therefore, vegans will need to consume large amounts of these to get enough omega-3s.

This is one of the reasons why vegan, plant-based diets are not sustainable in the long-run for most people.

Food sources of omega 3 fatty acids

There are animal sources and vegetarian and vegan food sources of omega 3 fatty acids.

  • marine Phytoplankton
  • Algae, Seaweed
  • Flaxseed or Chia Seeds, walnuts
  • Krill – these are small, shrimp-like crustaceans that are commonly eaten by whales. Krill oil is made by harvesting the krill and extracting their fats which are then encapsulated and used medicinally.
  • Fatty Coldwater Fishlike Sardines, Anchovies, Herring, Mackerel and Salmon, Kaviar
  • Shellfish (oysters)
  • red meat like Grass-fed beef and tallow (beef fat), lamb and mutton
  • Eggs, especially from pastured chickens or chickens fed a diet rich in omega-3 fats

Download a List of Food Sources for Omega-3 by clicking on the button below.

Click HERE To Download Your List of Omega-3 Rich Foods

Supplement sources of omega 3 fatty acids:

  • Fish oil capsules (the most common source and most affordable)
  • Krill oil capsules
  • Algae oil capsules
  • Marine Phytoplankton preparations
tty acids omega 3 fish oil ocean environment algae oil phytoplankton greens marine phytoplankton

Top 10 Health Benefits of Omega-3 fatty acids

Clients often ask me: are omega 3 fatty acids good for you?
The answer is, as with many questions: it depends. If you, like most people nowadays, don't eat the "perfect" diet, you probably would benefit from adding omega-3 fatty acids to your diet.

How can you know? By doing an omega 3 - 6 ratio test like this here by omegaquant.com.

So, what is omega 3 good for?
Omega 3 fatty acids are most often quoted for their benefits for heart health, but they have been evaluated for other organ systems. Here are the most common benefits from improving your omega3/6 ratio:

  • Benefits for Heart Health
  • Benefits for Brain and Mental Health
  • Benefits for Type 2 Diabetes
  • Benefits for Skin Health
  • Benefits for Eye Health
  • Benefits for Pregnancy, Infants and Children
  • Benefits For Longevity and Healthy Aging
  • Benefits for Back and Joint Pain
  • Benefits for the Immune System
  • Benefits for Fitness

Benefits of Omega-3 fatty acids for Heart Health

It has been proven in numerous studies, that omega 3's especially if taken from food sources like fatty fish like salmon, mackerel, herring, sardines, tuna and trout, are beneficial for healrth health. If properly absorbed by the gut so your omega3/6 index is in the optimal range, your risk for heart disease, heart attacks and death is markedly lower. (2,3)

In the video above, Christopher Kelly with Nourish Balance Thrive interviewed Dr. Malcolm Kendrick, a British physician and author of "Doctoring Data: How to Sort Out Medical Advice from Medical Nonsense", "The Great Cholesterol Con," and "A Statin Nation: Damaging Millions in a Brave New Post-Health World."

An outline and transcript of the interview can be found on the Nourish Balance Thrive website. In short, the most concerning risk factors for cardiovascular disease are actually insulin resistance, Type 2 diabetes and the chronic inflammation associated with these conditions. However, Kendrick argues there are other factors at play as well, such as how you eat.

There is more scientific evidence behind the cardiovascular benefits of fish oil than any other nutritional supplement. Thousands of clinical studies have shown that increased intake of EPA and DHA—the omega–3 essential fatty acids in fish oil—enhance overall cardiovascular function. The American Heart Association recommends that healthy adults eat fish at least twice a week, and that patients with heart disease take 1 gram EPA+DHA per day, and individuals with high triglycerides, 2–4 grams per day. (9)

The research-backed benefits of fish oil for heart health include:
• Supports circulation and healthy blood vessel function
• Promotes the metabolism of dietary fat and cholesterol
• Supports a healthy heart rhythm
• Promotes healthy triglyceride levels in healthy individuals
• Is natural and safe for long-term use

Benefits of omega-3 fats for Brain and Mental Health

The huge and rapidly-growing body of clinical research on EPA and DHA in fish oils indicates they are vital to the brain’s blood flow, its overall information processing capabilities, and memory. This also includes other cognitive functions such as mood, the brain’s “executive functioning” to make good decisions, and a calm and controlled demeanor.

Omega-3 EPA and DHA are vital nutritional support for the healthy early development, maturation, and optimal functioning of the brain, heart and circulation, and all the body’s other organs. They are also vital to the survival and optimal functioning of mind and body, across our entire lifespan.(6)

Omega 3 EPA and DHA are really important to the optimal function of your brain and here’s why: DHA makes up a large portion of the gray matter of the brain. DHA and EPA promote healthy blood flow, which is essential to optimal brain function. These fatty acids are major building blocks for membranes, cell structures that are vital for all our cells to function – and are crucial for our cell membranes to perform at their best.

EPA and DHA, the omega–3 essential fatty acids in fish oil, are particularly concentrated in the brain. It is composed of nearly 60% fat—and the nervous system, where they provide necessary building blocks for healthy cells and tissue. DHA, for example, constitutes 20% of the total fatty acids in the cerebral cortex, the outermost layer of the brain responsible for sophisticated information processing like memory and attention. (10)

Our nerve cells, and especially the connections that they make (the synapses) need to be rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Think of omega-3s as high quality motor oil for the finely-tuned engine that is your brain. (6)

Taking a quality fish oil concentrate is a great way to ensure you get enough of these healthy omega-3s.

If you need a little more convincing, take note:

A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that EPA- and DHA-rich fish oil helps elevate mood. One twenty-year study involving 3,317 men and women found that people with the highest consumption of EPA and DHA were less likely to have mood challenges.

A tremendous amount of scientific evidence points to a connection between consumption of fish that is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, healthy and cognitive function.

A Danish team of researchers compared the diets of 5,386 healthy older individuals and found that the more fish in a person’s diet, the more likely were these individuals to maintain high-performance memory into old age! (6)

To choose a quality fish oil, be sure it’s ultra pure and choose a product that supplies at least 500 mg of DHA and 500 mg of EPA per day. Some inferior quality brands are lacking in one or the other or sometimes both. (6)

The research-backed benefits of fish oil include:
• Supports healthy brain function
• Promotes positive mood and well-being
• Supports memory and learning ability
• Supports focus and attention
• May help slow the progression of age-related memory loss
• Protects nerve and brain cells from oxidative stress and damage
• Is natural and safe for long-term use

Many diseases of the mind and brain like some forms of depression, anxiety, even ADHD or Alzheimers disease, have been associated with inflammation. So omega-3 fatty acids could benefit especially these types of mental or brain illness best.

I have been asked if

Do you get enough omega 3's? Learn more and take the test by clicking on the button below.

Benefits of omega 3 fatty acids for Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes Type 2 has been associated with inflammation, and omega 3/6 imbalance causes inflammation that can be helped with omega-3-substitution.

There have been studies that Omega-3-supplementation can be helpful in Type 2 diabetes (3) as it can have a positive effect on the insulin-resistance that characterizes this type of diabetes.

The omega-3/6 index test can help to see if you need to supplement and if you are supplementing with the appropriate dosage.

Benefits of omega 3 fats for Skin Health

Skin is the largest organ in the human body and is often the first visual indicator of an essential fatty acid deficiency.

EPA and DHA, the omega–3 essential fatty acids in fish oil, along with GLA (gamma-linolenic-acid) , the essential omega-6 fatty acid found in borage and evening primrose oils, are crucial nutrients for skin health and function. These essential fatty acids (EFAs) reside in the membranes that surround skin cells, where they regulate a large number of cellular processes that directly impact skin health.

Since skin has a relative fast cell turnover rate (about 28 days), it needs lots of cellular structural elements to stay supple and elastic. Among those are not only collagen, Vitamin C, D, E, zinc and iron, but of course omega 3 (and -6) fatty acids.

A serious lack of those essential fatty acids or a marked imbalance can cause dry, brittle skin, hair and nails and even inflammatory changes like eczema/dermatitis.

The research-backed benefits of fish oil + GLA include:
• Nourishes skin, hair, and nails
• Protects against age–related damage
• Hydrates skin by retaining natural moisture
• Protects against free radicals
• Stimulates production of healthy skin cells
• Supports a clear and healthy complexion
• Is natural and safe for long-term use

For this reason, if you have any skin issues, you want to know your omega-3-index and omega 6/3 ratio. and substitute accordingly.

Benefits of omega 3 fats for Eye Health

Many people heard of the importance of Vitamin A (Carotenoids), Vitamins E, lutein and zeaxanthin for eye health. But the eyes need more.

Many people nowadays have dry eye disease that often can be helped by properly balacing omega 6/3 ratio.

As part of the brain, DHA is found at very high concentrations in the cell membranes of the retina; the retina conserves and recycles DHA even when omega-3 fatty acid intake is low. Animal studies indicate that DHA is required for the normal development and function of the retina.

Moreover, these studies suggest that there is a critical period during retinal development when inadequate DHA will result in permanent abnormalities in retinal function. Research indicates that DHA plays an important role in the regeneration of the visual pigment rhodopsin, which plays a critical role in the visual transduction system that converts light hitting the retina to visual images in the brain.

The research-backed benefits of fish oil include:
• Promotes healthy eyes and vision
• Supports healthy tissue moisture and tear production
• Protects against age-related oxidative damage
• Maintains fluid and flexible eye cells and tissues
• Can help alleviate dryness and redness
• Is natural and safe for long-term use

Another good reason to take the test and balance your omega3/6-fatty acids!

Benefits of Omega 3 Fatty Acids in Pregnancy, Infanthood and Children

EPA and DHA—the omega-3 essential fatty acids in fish oil—are crucial throughout life, but especially during pregnancy, when a woman's demand for DHA in particular increases substantially.

DHA comprises approximately 20% of the fatty acid in the brain's cerebral cortex. That's why DHA is among the most important nutrients for pregnant and lactating women.

The DHA consumed by expectant moms sets the foundation for her baby's developing brain, eyes, and nervous system. DHA also provides mood and nerve support for new mothers in the weeks following her baby's birth. Omega–3 fish oil is a safe, pure, and effective way to promote the health of both moms and babies, and is endorsed by the American Pregnancy Association.

Children really have the most to gain from these essential fats. From prenatal babies to adolescents, children rely heavily on EPA and DHA for visual, brain and immune system development, and for normal emotional and cognitive function.

Much of this has to do with the rapid growth of the brain in childhood. Essential fatty acids have been shown to positively impact children in a whole host of ways.

Unfortunately, recent research has also shown that only 22% of children get adequate amounts of these essential fatty acids. Along with a healthy diet that includes fish and fresh green leafy vegetables, supplementing with a premium fish oil product is the best way to ensure that families begin to reverse this trend.

The research-backed benefits of fish oil include:

  • Promotes the healthy development of the fetal brain, eyes, nervous system
  • Promotes positive mood and well-being for mothers
  • Supports healthy birth weight and gestational length
  • Omega–3 consumption in pregnancy may reduce the risk of allergies in children
  • Omega–3 consumption in pregnancy may reduce the risk of colds in infants
  • Promotes attention and focus in infants and children
  • Supports healthy immune system development
  • Omega–3 consumption may support learning

Benefits of Omega 3 Fatty Acids for Longevity (Getting Older Healthier)

All the benefits mentioned here contribute to fish oil supporting healthy aging and longevity.

Scientific Studies support this (12, 13)

Your omega-3 levels in the blood are a better predictor of long-term health than your cholesterol levels!

Benefits of Omega 3 Fatty Acids for Back and Joint Pain

A large body of scientific evidence indicates that fish oil supports key compounds and internal repair systems that operate in response to physical stress. Studies show that EPA and DHA, the omega–3 essential fatty acids in fish oil, support the resolution of pain associated with physical stress to the back and joints.

The research-backed benefits of fish oil include:
• Promotes back and joint health
• Promotes joint mobility and flexibility
• Supports internal repair systems that operate in response to physical stress
• Is natural and safe for long-term use

Benefits of Omega 3 Fatty Acids for our Immune system

The ratio of omega–3 to omega–6 essential fatty acids that a person consumes directly impacts the health of their immune response. Similarly, the ratio of fatty acids within their cell membranes directly influences whether the immune response synthesizes beneficial or potentially harmful molecules. When the immune system is triggered—for example by injury, allergy, or infection—fatty acids are released from the cell membranes. These fatty acids are converted into molecules as part of the body's natural healing response. A large body of scientific evidence indicates that fish oil helps to naturally regulate the immune response and support the internal repair systems that operate in response to stress and injury.

The research-backed benefits of fish oil include:
• Promotes a healthy immune response
• Supports internal repair systems that operate in response to stress and injury
• Is natural and safe for long–term use

Benefits of Omega 3 Fatty Acids for Fitness

High–intensity exercise significantly increases the demand on the circulatory system to provide oxygen and nutrients to the muscles, lungs, and brain, and to remove metabolic waste like lactic acid. Omega–3 essential fatty acids from fish oil have been shown to support lung function, and to promote blood flow and oxygen delivery to active muscle by enhancing blood vessel function. They have also been shown to play an important part in recovery from physical stress. These effects combine to enhance endurance and promote joint flexibility, mobility, and comfort.

The research–backed benefits of fish oil include:
• Enhances cardiovascular function and circulation
• Promotes joint flexibility and mobility
• Supports optimal fat metabolism and body composition
• Enhances exercise performance, endurance, and recovery
• Is natural and safe for long–term use

Supplementation with omega 3 fatty acids

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Practical Aspects:

Look For EPA and DHA Levels in your food and supplements:

Make sure to read the supplement facts part of the label to know how much EPA+DHA you are getting. A 1000 mg fish oil soft gel refers only to the size of the soft gel, not the levels of EPA+DHA. You can recognize a better quality fish oil supplement by adding the EPA and DHA content on the label. It should add up to more than 50% of the fish oil content.

For example:

Fish oil 1000 mg

DHA 450 mg

EPA 250 mg

You calculate: DHA+EPA=450+250=700 mg which is 70% of 1000 mg.

Fish oil supplements should be ideally harvested in a sustainable manner. They need to be tested for heavy metals and environmental toxin content. They should contain natural antioxidants like Vitamin E and be kept in a dark and cool environment to avoid getting rancid too soon.

A good fish oil supplement does not lead to a "fishy burp" or have a rancid smell.

What about plant-based Omega-3 supplements?

Most plant-based supplements only contain ALA, which is often not well converted to EPA and DHA (the fatty acids we need for all cells) in our body. The conversion rate is often below 1%.

The only plant-based source of EPA and DHA is so far marine Algae Oil and marine phytoplankton.

Usual Omega-3 content of Supplements:

Dietary Supplements–Amount(mg) per 1,000 mg capsule or per teaspoon

tty acids omega 3 fish oil green supplement algae greens health epa dha content

Potential Side effects of supplementing with omega 3 fatty acids

What are the side effects of Omega 3 supplements?

Side effects of omega 3 fish oil capsules or for liquid omega 3 fish oil are often a fishy aftertaste. This can be avoided by taking the capsules or preparations with food around the end of a big meal. As other fat-soluble supplements (Vitamins A,D,E and K and others) omega 3 fatty acids should be taken with a meal containing other fats for best absorption.

If you have any allergies, you should check with your doctor or pharmacist if there are any ingredients that could hurt you…

This sounds scary, but really all they are effects that may occur if you eat other food that contains omega 3. They are listed to make sure that the supplement manufacturers are safe.

You would be surprised about the list of side effects that would be required if for example honey was sold as a drug or natural supplement instead of a food.

So, when you read the rather long lists of side effects mentioned on some sites, use your own judgement and discretion and see how you feel. If there is any doubt, ask your personal healthcare provider (MD, ND etc) for advice.

Ask a doctor or pharmacist if this medicine is safe to use if you have ever had:

  • an allergy to fish or shellfish
  • a bleeding disorder
  • diabetes
  • liver disease
  • a heart rhythm disorder
  • a pancreas disorder
  • autoimmune disease treatment
  • cancer treatments
  • underactive thyroid.

Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

More likely than not these supplements are safe for you in spite of it, since omega 3 supplements side effects are rare, but it always is better to check first with your individual healthcare provider.

Side effects requiring immediate medical attention

Omega 3 adverse effects are rare. But if they occur, you need to know the signs of those rare potential side effects. Although not all these side effects may occur, if they do occur, they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following symptoms occur while taking omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (or any other medication or supplement)

  • Bleeding gums
  • cough
  • coughing up blood
  • difficulty with breathing or swallowing
  • dizziness
  • fast or irregular heartbeat
  • headache
  • hives, itching, or skin rash
  • increased menstrual flow or vaginal bleeding
  • nosebleeds
  • paralysis
  • prolonged bleeding from cuts
  • puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue
  • red or black, tarry stools
  • red or dark brown urine
  • sweating
  • tightness in the chest
  • unusual tiredness or weakness

Symptoms not requiring immediate medical attention

Some side effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects.

Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

They may or may not related at all to the supplements itself.

Less common

  • Acid or sour stomach
  • bad, unusual, or unpleasant (after) taste
  • belching
  • bloated or full feeling
  • change in taste
  • excess air or gas in the stomach
  • heartburn
  • indigestion
  • stomach discomfort, upset, or pain

Incidence not known

  • Diarrhea
  • difficulty having a bowel movement (stool)
  • loss of appetite
  • nausea or vomiting
  • passing of gas
  • stomach fullness

Do You Get Enough?

International experts recommend:

500 mg EPA+DHAto avoid deficiency1 g EPA+DHAfor proactive support2-4 g EPA+DHAfor high-intensity support

Essential Fatty Acids (especially the omega 3-s and 6) are nutritional cornerstones of human health. They are deemed "essential" because we need them for proper health—much like certain vitamins and minerals—but cannot produce them on our own. We must therefore consume these fats through diet or supplementation.

Most people associate omega-3s with cardiovascular health, but their benefits go far beyond the heart. The two main omega-3s—eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)—promote a healthy immune response that is behind the relief of many chronic conditions but that is too often inhibited by poor nutrition. Extensive research has documented the health benefits of EPA and DHA, which include not only a healthy heart, but brain and cognitive function, joint mobility, eye health, pregnancy and lactation, healthy skin and hair, and a normally functioning immune response.

Despite the great health benefits of omegas, individuals around the world suffer from omega–3 deficiency, a little–known problem to most people, but one that is counted as the 8th leading cause of preventable death in the US, among dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors. (11) Omega–3 deficiency stems in large part from the growing unavailability of foods rich in these nutrients—principally fish—and because of the increasing popularity of the Western diet worldwide. While most diets prior to the 20th century contained a relative balance of omega–3 and omega–6 rich foods, the typical Western diet today contains far more of the omega–6s. In fact, North Americans have the lowest intake of omega-3 essential fatty acids of any developed country—the typical American diet contains 14–25 times more omega–6s than omega-3s.

Click HERE to Learn More about the Omega3/6 test and to Buy


1. Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omega-3_fatty_acid

2. Oregon State university, Linus Pauling Center: https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/other-nutrients/essential-fatty-acids

3. National Institute of Health (NIH): https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Omega3FattyAcids-HealthProfessional/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3430014/

4. Dr. Daniel Amen: https://brainmd.com/blog/omega-3-fatty-acid-supplement-latest-research/, https://brainmd.com/blog/know-fatty-acids-omega-3-omega-6, https://brainmd.com/blog/omega-fatty-acids-proper-ratio-key/, https://www.amenclinics.com/blog/how-omega-3-fatty-acids-change-your-brain/

5. Prohealth: https://www.prohealth.com/natural-wellness/library/study-shows-blueberries-omega-3s-great-brain-81611?

6. Canadian Family Physician: (Dry Eye): https://www.cfp.ca/content/64/11/826

7. Raffaele De Caterina, n-3 Fatty Acids in Cardiovascular Disease, New England Journal of Medicine 2011; 364: 2439–50

8. https://www.nordicnaturals.com/en/professionals/why-omega-3s/536

9. Danaei G, et al. The Preventable Causes of Death in the United States: Comparative Risk Assessment of Dietary, Lifestyle, and Metabolic Risk Factors. PLoS Med 2009;6(4)

10. Lai HT, de Oliveira Otto MC, et al. Serial circulating omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and healthy ageing among older adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study: prospective cohort study [published correction appears in BMJ. 2018;363:k4445.]. BMJ. 2018;363:k4067. https://www.bmj.com/content/363/bmj.k4067.

11. Zhu Y, Ferrara A, Forman MR. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and healthy ageing. BMJ. 2018;363:k4263. https://www.bmj.com/content/363/bmj.k4263.

12. The Dangers of Omega-6 to Omega-3 imbalance: https://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2019/11/omega-6-overload/






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About the Author

Dr. Christine Sauer is a German-trained physician and naturopath, working as a Holistic Mental Health and Brain Health Professional, Coach, Educator and Consultant.
After major struggles with chronic pain and chronic depression over 20 years ago, she made the decision for change.
She applied all she knew to herself and recovered fully.
As "The Doctor Who KNOWS How You Feel" she now helps others overcome chronic depression and to “sparkle” with her proprietary SPARKLE system.
Her clients value the deep personal connection she forms with them as well the practical strategies, vast knowledge and her sense of humor.
She is the founder of DocChristine Coaching Inc. and the “Recover Your Sparkle” System and Program, a Simple, yet sophisticated way to recover from chronic depression around all 5 Dimensions of Health and live a fulfilled, meaningful life full of passion and purpose.
She writes and teaches about Practical, Proven Strategies for Depression Recovery.
As a multiple bestselling author and an engaging, inspirational and entertaining speaker and Tedx speaker, Dr. Christine has appeared on many stages, video shows and her own webinars and videos.

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